Japan as it was and is

ページ名:Japan as it was and is

Hildreth's "Japan as it was and is" by Richard Hildreth

Volume I.

“Advertisement” to Original Edition. Richard Hildreth xiii
Editor’s Introduction Ernest W. Clement xix
Foreword Wm. Elliot Griffis xxv
Japanese Pronunciation xxxi
CHAPTER I
Earliest European Knowledge of Japan—Japanese Histories—Marco Polo’s Account of the Mongol or Tartar Invasion—Accounts of the Same Event given by the Chinese and Japanese Annalists—A. D. 1281 or 1283 1
CHAPTER II
Portuguese Empire in the East—Discovery of Japan—Galvano’s Account of it—Fernam Mendez Pinto’s Account of his First Visit to Japan, and Adventures there—Japanese Account of the First Arrival of Portuguese—A. D. 1542-1545 11
CHAPTER III
Pinto’s Second Visit to Japan—Anjirō, or Paul of the Holy Faith—A. D. 1547-1548 34
CHAPTER IV
Religious Faith Three Centuries ago—Zeal of the Portuguese Conquerors—Antonio Galvano—Missionary Seminaries at Ternate and Goa—Order of the Jesuits—Francis Xavier—His Mission to India—His Mission to Japan—His Companion, Cosme de Torres—The Philippine Islands—A. D. 1542-1550 40[Pg vi]
CHAPTER V
Political and Religious Condition of Japan, as found by the Portuguese—The Yakatas, or Kings, and their Vassals—Revenues—Money—Distinction of Ranks—The Kubō-Sama—The Dairi—Shintō—Buddhism—Judō—A. D. 1550 57
CHAPTER VI
Civilization of the Japanese—Animals—Agriculture—Arts—Houses—Ships—Literature—Jurisprudence—Character of the Japanese—Their Custom of cutting themselves open—A. D. 1550 75
CHAPTER VII
Preaching of Xavier—Pinto’s Third Visit to Japan—A. D. 1550-1551 81
CHAPTER VIII
Progress of the Missions under Fathers De Torres and Nugnes Barreto—Mendez Pinto a Fourth Time in Japan—A. D. 1551-1557 87
CHAPTER IX
Louis Almeida—The Missionaries establish themselves at Miyako [Kyōtō]—Louis Froez—Princes converted in Shimo—Rise of Nobunaga—Prosperity of the Missions—Noble and Princely Converts—Nagasaki built—Nobunaga makes himself Emperor—A. D. 1557-1577 93
CHAPTER X
Father Valignani—State of the Missions—Conversion and Baptism of the King of Bungo—Growth of Nagasaki—Embassy to the Pope—Documents relating to this Embassy—A. D. 1577-1586 100
CHAPTER XI
Events meanwhile in Japan—Downfall of Nobunaga—Accession of Hashiba, afterwards known as Kwambacudono, and, finally, as Taikō-Sama—Edict against the Jesuits—Return of the Ambassadors—A. D. 1582-1588 116[Pg vii]
CHAPTER XII
Recapitulation—Extent of the Japanese Empire—Valignani arrives at Nagasaki—Progress hitherto of the Catholic Faith—The Emperor’s Projects against China—Valignani’s Visit to the Emperor at Miyako—Ukondono—The returned Japanese Ambassadors—Audience given to Valignani—The Viceroy’s Letter—The Interpreter Rodriguez—A. D. 1588-1593 123
CHAPTER XIII
New Troubles of the Missionaries from their own Countrymen—The Emperor claims Homage of the Governor of the Philippines—Mutual Jealousies of the Portuguese and Spaniards—Spanish Adventurers in Japan—The Emperor’s Suspicions excited—His Reply to the Viceroy of Goa—A. D. 1591-1592 134
CHAPTER XIV
The Expedition against Corea—The Emperor associates his Nephew—City of Fushimi—Correspondence of the Emperor with the Governor of Manila—The Jesuits denounced by the Spanish Envoys—Consequences thereof—Departure of Valignani—A. D. 1592 140
CHAPTER XV
Progress of the Corean War—Success of the Japanese—Konishi Settsu-no-Kami, Viceroy of Corea—Edict of the Emperor for disarming the Converts in Shimo—Disgrace and Downfall of the Royal Family of Bungo—Terazawa, Governor of Nagasaki—His Conversion and Friendly Acts—A. D. 1592-1593 144
CHAPTER XVI
Jealousy on the Part of the Dominicans and Franciscans towards Jesuits—This Jealousy coöperates with the Mercantile Jealousy of the Spaniards at Manila—Franciscan Friars establish themselves at Miyako, Ōsaka, and Nagasaki—Edicts against them—Deposition and Death of the Emperor’s Nephew—A. D. 1593-1595 147
CHAPTER XVII
Great Earthquake—Mission from China—Arrival of a Spanish Galleon—Friars on Board her—New Accusations on her Account against the Jesuits—Connection of the Jesuits with the Trade to Japan—Arrest of Missionaries and Converts—First Martyrs—A. D. 1595-1597 151[Pg viii]
CHAPTER XVIII
New Edict for the Deportation of the Jesuits—Its Partial Evasion—New Correspondence between the Philippines and Japan—Taikō-Sama’s Justification of his Recent Proceedings—New Destruction of Churches in Shimo—Taikō-Sama’s Death—His Preceding Efforts to secure his own Deification and the Succession of his Infant Son, Hideyori—Regency—Iyeyasu, its Head, with the Title of Daifu-Sama—A. D. 1597-1599 158
CHAPTER XIX
Evacuation of Corea—Return of the Converted Princes—Favorable Disposition of Daifu-Sama—Third Visit of Father Valignani—Civil War between Daifu-Sama and his Co-Regents—His Triumph—Disgrace and Execution of Settsu-no-Kami—Daifu-Sama takes the Title of Ōgosho-Sama and still favors the Converts—Influx of Dominican and Franciscan Friars—Flourishing Condition of the Church—Local Persecutions—A. D. 1599-1609 162
CHAPTER XX
Attempt of the English and Dutch to discover a New Route to the Far East—Voyages round the World—Attempted English Voyage to Japan—English and Dutch Voyages to India—First Dutch Voyage to Japan—Adams, the English Pilot—His Adventures and Detention in Japan—A. D. 1513-1607 166
CHAPTER XXI
Spanish Friars in Japan—Extension of Japanese Trade—Progress of the Dutch in the Eastern Seas—They open a Trade with Japan—Emperor’s Letter—Shipwreck of Don Rodrigo de Vivero on the Japanese Coast—His Reception, Observations, and Departure—Destruction of a Portuguese Carac by the Japanese—Another Dutch Ship arrives—Spex’s Charter—Embassies from Macao and New Spain—Father Louis Sotelo and his Projects—A. D. 1607-1618 179
CHAPTER XXII
Origin and Commencement of English Intercourse with Japan—Captain Saris’ Voyage thither, and Travels and Observations there—New Spanish Embassy from the Philippines—Commercial Rivalry of the Dutch and English—Richard Cocks, Head of the English Factory—A. D. 1611-1613 206[Pg ix]
CHAPTER XXIII
Ecclesiastical Retrospect—New Persecution—Edict of Banishment against the Missionaries—Civil War between Hideyori and Ōgosho-Sama—Triumph of Ōgosho-Sama—His Death—Persecution more Violent than ever—Mutual Rancor of the Jesuits and the Friars—Progress of Martyrdom—The English and Dutch—A. D. 1613-1620 227
CHAPTER XXIV
Collisions of the Dutch and English in the Eastern Seas—The English retire from Japan—The Spaniards repelled—Progress of the Persecution—Japanese Ports, except Hirado and Nagasaki, closed to Foreigners—Charges in Europe against the Jesuits—Fathers Sotelo and Collado—Torment of the Fosse—Apostasies—The Portuguese confined to Deshima—Rebellion of Shimabara—The Portuguese excluded—Ambassadors put to Death—A. D. 1621-1640 236
CHAPTER XXV
Policy of the Dutch—Affair of Nuyts—Haganaar’s Visits to Japan—Caron’s Account of Japan—Income of the Emperor and the Nobles—Military Force—Social and Political Position of the Nobles—Justice—Relation of the Dutch to the Persecution of the Catholics—The Dutch removed from Hirado and confined in Deshima—Attempts of the English, Portuguese, and French at Intercourse with Japan—Final Extinction of the Catholic Faith—A. D. 1620-1707 251
CHAPTER XXVI
Portuguese Trade to Japan—Dutch Trade—Silver, Gold, and Copper the Chief Articles of Export—Export of Silver prohibited—Chinese Trade—Its Increase after the Accession of the Manchu Dynasty—Chinese Temples at Nagasaki—A Buddhist Doctor from China—Edict on the Subject of Household Worship—Restrictions on the Dutch Trade—Increase in the Number of Chinese Visitors to Nagasaki—Their Objects—Restrictions on the Chinese Trade—The Chinese shut up in a Factory—Trade with Lew Chew [Riūkiū]—A. D. 1542-1690 269[Pg x]
CHAPTER XXVII
Engelbert Kämpfer—His Visit to Japan—Deshima and its Inhabitants as described by him—A. D. 1690 282
CHAPTER XXVIII
Particular Statement as to the Dutch Trade as it existed in Kämpfer’s Time—Arrival of the Ships—Unlading—Passes—Imports—Company and Private Goods—Kambans, or Public Sales—Duties—Profits—Exports—Departure of the Ships—Smuggling—Execution of Smugglers 316
CHAPTER XXIX
Nagasaki and its Vicinity as seen by Kämpfer—Imperial Governors—Their Officers and Palaces—Municipal System—Street Government—Mutual Responsibility—Administration of Justice—Taxes—Government of other Towns—Adjacent Country—The God Suwa and his Matsuri—A. D. 1690-1692 337
CHAPTER XXX
Kämpfer’s Two Journeys to Court—Preparations—Presents—Japanese Attendants—Packing the Baggage and Riding on Horseback—Japanese Love of Botany—Accoutrements—Road-Books—Norimono and Kago—A. D. 1690-1692 366
CHAPTER XXXI
Highways—Rivers—Fords—Ferries—Bridges—Water Part of the Journey—Coast and Islands—Frail Structure of Japanese Vessels—Description of them—Buildings on the Route—Proclamation Places—Places of Execution—Tera, or Buddhist Temples—Miya, or Shintō Temples—Idols and Amulets 380

Volume II

CHAPTER XXXII
Page
Post-Houses—Imperial Messengers—Inns—Houses—Their Furniture and Interior Arrangements—Bathing and Sweating House—Gardens—Refreshment Houses—What they Provide—Tea 1
CHAPTER XXXIII
Number of People on the Road—Princely Retinues—Pilgrims to Ise—Junrei Pilgrims—Naked Devotees—Religious Beggars—Begging Order of Nuns—Yamabushi, or Mountain Priests—Buddhist Beggars—Singular Bell-Chiming—Hucksters and Peddlers—Courtesans 15
CHAPTER XXXIV
Departure from Nagasaki—Train of the Dutch—The Day’s Journey—Treatment of the Dutch—Respect shown them in the Island of Shimo—Care with which they are watched—Inns at which they lodge—Their Reception and Treatment there—Politeness of the Japanese—Lucky and Unlucky Days—Seimei, the Astrologer 31
CHAPTER XXXV
From Nagasaki to Kokura—Shimonoseki—Water Journey to Ōsaka—Description of that City—Its Castle—Interview with the Governors—From Ōsaka to Miyako—Jodo and its Castle—Fushimi—Entrance into Miyako—Visit to the Chief Justice and the Governors—Description of Miyako—Palace of the Dairi—Castle—Manufactures and Trade—Authority of the Chief Justice—Police—Crimes 45[Pg vi]
CHAPTER XXXVI
Lake Ōtsu—Mount Hiei[zan]—Japanese Legends—A Japanese
Patent Medicine—Kwannon—Miya—Arai—Policy of the Emperors—Kakegawa—A Town on Fire—Suruga—Kunō—Passage of a Rapid River—Fuji-no-yama, or Mount Fuji—Crossing the Peninsula of Izu—Second Searching Place—Purgatory Lake—Odawara—Coast of the Bay of Yedo—A Live Saint—Kanagawa—Shinagawa—Yedo—Imperial Castles and Palace 67
CHAPTER XXXVII
Personages to be visited—Visit to the Emperor—First Audience—Second Audience—Visit to the Houses of the Councillors—Visits to the Governors of Yedo and the Temple Lords—Visit to the Houses of the Governors of Nagasaki—Audience of Leave—Return—Visits to Temples in the Vicinity of Miyako—A. D. 1691-1692 85
CHAPTER XXXVIII
Further Decline of the Dutch Trade—Degradation of the Japanese Coins—The Dutch threaten to withdraw from Japan—Restrictions on the Chinese Trade—Probable Cause of the Policy adopted by the Japanese—Drain of the Precious Metals—New Basis upon which Future Trade must be arranged 109
CHAPTER XXXIX
Thunberg’s Visit to Japan—Searches and Examinations—Smuggling—Interpreters—Deshima—Imports and Exports—Unicorn’s Horn and Ginseng—Soy—The Dutch at Deshima—Japanese Mistresses—Japanese Women—Studying the Language—Botanizing—Clocks—New Year’s Day—Trampling on Images—Departure for Yedo—Journey through the Island of Shimo—Japanese Houses and Furniture—Manufacture of Paper—Practice of Bathing—Shimonoseki—Voyage to Ōsaka—Children—From Ōsaka to Miyako—Agriculture—Animals—A. D. 1775-1776 114
CHAPTER XL
Japanese Merchants—Journey from Miyako to Yedo—Botany of the Mountains—Rainy Weather—Coverings for the Head and Feet—Yedo—Astronomers and Physicians—Acupuncture—Moxa [Mogusa]—Other Japanese Remedies—Method of wearing the Hair—Visits to the Emperor and his Chief Officers—Japanese Dress—Books and Maps—Succession of Emperors—Departure from Yedo—Gnats—Fire-Flies—Threshing—Vegetables and Fruits—Condition of the Japanese Farmer—Casting Copper—Actors and Dancers—Thunberg’s Opinion of the Japanese—A. D. 1775-1776 139[Pg vii]
CHAPTER XLI
Isaac Titsingh—His Residence in Japan—Translations from the Japanese—Annals of the Dairi—Memoirs of the Shōgun—Liberal Ideas in Japan—Marriage Ceremonies—Funeral Ceremonies—Mourning—Feast of Lanterns—A. D. 1779-1791 163
CHAPTER XLII
Exploration of the Northern Japanese Seas—First Russian Mission to Japan—Professorship of Japanese at Irkutsk—New Restrictions
on the Dutch—Embarrassments growing out of the War of the French Revolution—American Flag at Nagasaki—Captain Stewart—Ingenuity of a Japanese Fisherman—Heer Doeff, Director at Deshima—Suspicious Proceedings of Captain Stewart—Russian Embassy—Klaproth’s Knowledge of Japanese—Doeff’s First Journey to Yedo—Dutch Trade in 1804 and 1806—An American Ship at Nagasaki—The British Frigate “Phaeton—No Ships from Batavia—The Dutch on Short Allowance—English Ships from Batavia—Communication again suspended—Dutch and Japanese Dictionary—Children at the Factory—A. D. 1792-1817 190
CHAPTER XLIII
Golownin’s Capture and Imprisonment—Conveyance to Hakodate—Reception and Imprisonment—Interpreters—Interviews with the Governor—Removal to Matsumae—A Pupil in Russian—A Japanese Astronomer—Escape and Recapture—Treatment afterwards—Savants from Yedo—Japanese Science—European News—A Japanese Free-Thinker—Soldiers—Their Amusements—Thoughts on a Wedding—Domestic Arrangements—New Year—Return of the “Diana”—Reprisals—A Japanese Merchant and his Female Friend—Second Return of the “Diana”—Third Return of the “Diana”—Interview on Shore—Surrender of the Prisoners—Japanese Notification—The Merchant at Home—The Merchant Class in Japan—A. D. 1811-1813 212[Pg viii]
CHAPTER XLIV
Renewal of the Dutch Trade—Captain Gordon in the Bay of Yedo—Fisscher—Meylan—Siebold—British Mutineers—Voyage of the “Morrison”—Japanese Edict—The “Saramang” at Nagasaki—The “Mercator” in the Bay of Yedo—Commodore Biddle in the Bay of Yedo—Shipwrecked Americans—French Ships of War at Nagasaki—The “Preble” at Nagasaki—Surveying Ship “Mariner” in the Bays of Yedo and Shimoda—New Notification through the Dutch—A. D. 1817-1850 245
CHAPTER XLV
Foreign Relations—New Shōgun—Dutch Trade—Chinese Trade—American Embassy—Its Object—Letter to the Emperor—Perry’s First Visit to the Bay of Yedo—Death of the Shōgun—Perry’s Second Visit to the Bay of Yedo—Negotiation of a Treaty—The Treaty as agreed to—Shimoda—Hakodate—Additional Regulations—Japanese Currency—Burrow’s Visit to the Bay of Yedo—Third Visit of the American Steamers—Russian and English Negotiations—Exchange of Ratifications—Earthquake 274
CHAPTER XLVI
New Dutch Treaty—Mr. Harris, American Consul at Shimoda—His Convention with the Japanese—His Journey to Yedo—Second Visit to Yedo—Conditional Treaty—British Treaty—French and Russian Treaties—Japanese Embassies to the United States—A. D. 1854-1860 325

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