LEGENDS RESPECTING THE GODS.
Opening of the mythical world. — How the mythes are to be told. — Allegory rarely admissible. — Zeus — foremost in Grecian conception. — The gods — how conceived: human type enlarged. — Past history of the gods fitted on to present conceptions. — Chaos. — Gæa and Uranos. — Uranos disabled. — Kronos and the Titans. — Kronos overreached. — Birth and safety of Zeus and his brethren. — Other deities. — Ambitious schemes of Zeus. — Victory of Zeus and his brethren over Kronos and the Titans. — Typhôeus. — Dynasty of Zeus. — His offspring. — General distribution of the divine race. — Hesiodic theogony — its authority. — Points of difference between Homer and Hesiod. — Homeric Zeus. — Amplified theogony of Zens. — Hesiodic mythes traceable to Krête and Delphi. — Orphic theogony. — Zeus and Phanês. — Zagreus. — Comparison of Hesiod and Orpheus. — Influence of foreign religions upon Greece — Especially in regard to the worship of Dêmêtêr and Dionysos. — Purification for homicide unknown to Homer. — New and peculiar religious rites. — Circulated by voluntary teachers and promising special blessings. — Epimenidês, Sibylla, Bakis. — Principal mysteries of Greece. — Ecstatic rites introduced from Asia 700-500 B. C. — Connected with the worship of Dionysos. — Thracian and Egyptian influence upon Greece. — Encouragement to mystic legends. — Melampus the earliest name as teacher of the Dionysiac rites. — Orphic sect, a variety of the Dionysiac mystics. — Contrast of the mysteries with the Homeric Hymns. — Hymn to Dionysos. — Alteration of the primitive Grecian idea of Dionysos. — Asiatic frenzy grafted on the joviality of the Grecian Dionysia. — Eleusinian mysteries. — Homeric Hymn to Dêmêtêr. — Temple of Eleusis, built by order of Dêmêtêr for her residence. — Dêmêtêr prescribes the mystic ritual of Eleusis. — Homeric Hymn a sacred Eleusinian record, explanatory of the details of divine service. — Importance of the mysteries to the town of Eleusis. — Strong hold of the legend upon Eleusinian feelings. — Differ[p. xviii]ent legends respecting Dêmêtêr elsewhere. — Expansion of the legends. — Hellenic importance of Dêmêtêr. — Legends of Apollo. — Delian Apollo. — Pythian Apollo. — Foundation legends of the Delphian oracle. — They served the purpose of historical explanation. — Extended worship of Apollo. — Multifarious local legends respecting Apollo. — Festivals and Agônes. — State of mind and circumstances out of which Grecian mythes arose. — Discrepancies in the legends little noticed. — Aphroditê. — Athênê. — Artemis. — Poseidôn. — Stories of temporary servitude imposed on gods. — Hêrê. — Hêphæstos. — Hestia. — Hermês. — Hermês inventor of the lyre. — Bargain between Hermês and Apollo. — Expository value of the Hymn. — Zeus. — Mythes arising out of the religious ceremonies. — Small part of the animal sacrificed. — Promêtheus had outwitted Zeus. — Gods, heroes, and men, appear together in the mythes.
LEGENDS RELATING TO HEROES AND MEN.
Races of men as they appear in the Hesiodic “Works and Days.” — The Golden. — The Silver. — The Brazen. — The Heroic. — The Iron. — Different both from the Theogony and from Homer. — Explanation of this difference. — Ethical vein of sentiment. — Intersected by the mythical. — The “Works and Days,” earliest didactic poem. — First Introduction of dæmons. — Changes in the idea of dæmons. — Employed in attacks on the pagan faith. — Functions of the Hesiodic dæmons. — Personal feeling which pervades the “Works and Days.” — Probable age of the poem.
LEGEND OF THE IAPETIDS.
Iapetids in Hesiod. — Promêtheus and Epimêtheus. — Counter-manœuvring of Promêtheus and Zeus. — Pandôra. — Pandôra in the Theogony. — General feeling of the poet. — Man wretched, but Zeus not to blame. — Mischiefs arising from women. — Punishment of Promêtheus. — The Promêtheus of Æschylus. — Locality in which Promêtheus was confined.
HEROIC LEGENDS. — GENEALOGY OF ARGUS.
Structure and purposes of Grecian genealogies. — To connect the Grecian community with their common god. — Lower members of the genealogy historical — higher members non-historical. — The non-historical portion equally believed, and most valued by the Greeks. — Number of such genealogies — pervading every fraction of Greeks. — Argeian genealogy. — Inachus. — Phorôneus. — Argos Panoptês. — Iô. — Romance of Iô historicized by Persians and Phœnicians. — Legendary abductions of heroines adapted to the feelings prevalent during the Persian war. — Danaos and the Danaïdes. — Acrisios and Prœtos. — The Prœtides cured of frenzy[p. xix] by Melampus. — Acrisios, Danaê, and Zeus. — Perseus and the Gorgons. — Foundation of Mycênæ — commencement of Perseid dynasty. — Amphitryôn, Alkmênê, Sthenelos. — Zeus and Alkmênê. — Birth of Hêraklês. — Homeric legend of his birth: its expository value. — The Hêrakleids expelled. — Their recovery of Peloponnêsus and establishment in Argos, Sparta, and Messênia.
DEUKALION, HELLEN, AND SONS OF HELLEN.
Deukaliôn, son of Promêtheus. — Phthiôtis: his permanent seat. — General deluge. — Salvation of Deukaliôn and Pyrrha. — Belief in this deluge throughout Greece. — Hellên and Amphiktyôn. — Sons of Hellên: Dôrus, Xuthus, Æolus. — Amphiktyonic assembly. — Common solemnities and games. — Division of Hellas: Æolians, Dôrians, Iônians. — Large extent of Dôris implied in this genealogy. — This form of the legend harmonizes with the great establishments of the historical Dôrians. — Achæus — purpose which his name serves in the legend. — Genealogical diversities.
THE ÆOLIDS, OR SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF ÆOLUS.
Legends of Greece, originally isolated, afterwards thrown into series. — Æolus. — His seven sons and five daughters. — 1. First Æolid line — Salmôneus, Tyrô. — Pelias and Nêleus. — Pêrô, Bias, and Melampus. — Periklymenos. — Nestor and his exploits. — Nêleids down to Kodrus. — Second Æolid line — Krêtheus. — Admêtus and Alcêstis. — Pêleus and the wife of Acastus. — Pelias and Jasôn. — Jasôn and Mêdea. — Mêdea at Corinth. — Third Æolid line — Sisyphus. — Corinthian genealogy of Eumêlus. — Coalescence of different legends about Mêdea and Sisyphus. — Bellerophôn. — Fourth Æolid line — Athamas. — Phryxus and Hellê. — Inô and Palæmôn — Isthmian games. — Local root of the legend of Athamas. — Traces of ancient human sacrifices. — Athamas in the district near Orchomenos. — Eteoklês — festival of the Charitêsia. — Foundation and greatness of Orchomenos. — Overthrow by Hêraklês and the Thebans. — Trophônius and Agamêdês. — Ascalaphos and Ialmenos. — Discrepancies in the Orchomenian genealogy. — Probable inferences as to the ante-historical Orchomenos. — Its early wealth and industry. — Emissaries of the lake Kôpaïs. — Old Amphiktyony at Kalauria. — Orchomenos and Thebês. — Alcyonê and Kêyx. — Canacê. — The Alôids. — Calycê. — Elis and Ætôlia. — Eleian genealogy. — Augeas. — The Molionid brothers. — Variations in the Eleian genealogy. — Ætôlian genealogy. — Œneus, Meleager, Tydeus. — Legend of Meleager in Homer. — How altered by the poets after Homer. — Althæa and the burning brand. — Grand Kalydônian boar-hunt. — Atalanta. — Relics of the boar long preserved at Tegea. — Atalanta vanquished in the race by stratagem. — Deianeira. — Death of Hêraklês. — Tydeus. — Old age of Œneus. — Discrepant genealogies.
[p. xx]CHAPTER VII.
Misfortunes and celebrity of the Pelopids. — Pelops — eponym of Peloponnêsus. — Deduction of the sceptre of Pelops. — Kingly attributes of the family. — Homeric Pelops. — Lydia, Pisa, etc., post-Homeric additions. — Tantalus. — Niobê. — Pelops and Œnomaus, king of Pisa. — Chariot victory of Pelops — his principality at Pisa. — Atreus, Thyestês, Chrysippus. — Family horrors among the Pelopids. — Agamemnôn and Menelaus. — Orestês. — The goddess Hêrê and Mykênæ. — Legendary importance of Mykênæ. — Its decline coincident with the rise of Argos and Sparta. — Agamemnôn and Orestês transferred to Sparta.
LACONIAN AND MESSENIAN GENEALOGIES.
Lelex — autochthonous in Lacônia. — Tyndareus and Lêda. — Offspring of Lêda. — 1. Castôr, Timandra, Klytæmnêstra, 2. Pollux, Helen. — Castôr and Pollux. — Legend of the Attic Dekeleia. — Idas and Lynkeus. — Great functions and power of the Dioskuri. — Messênian genealogy. — Periêrês — Idas and Marpêssa.
Pelasgus. — Lykaôn and his fifty sons. — Legend of Lykaôn — ferocity punished by the gods. — Deep religious faith of Pausanias. — His view of past and present world. — Kallistô and Arkas. — Azan, Apheidas, Elatus. — Aleus, Augê, Telephus. — Ancæus. — Echemus. — Echemus kills Hyllus. — Hêrakleids repelled from Peloponnêsus. — Korônis and Asklêpius. — Extended worship of Asklêpius — numerous legends. — Machaôn and Podaleirius. — Numerous Asklêpiads, or descendants from Asklêpius. — Temples of Asklêpius — sick persons healed there.
ÆAKUS AND HIS DESCENDANTS. — ÆGINA, SALAMIS, AND PHTHIA.
Æakus — son of Zeus and Ægina. — Offspring of Æakus — Pêleus, Telamôn, Phôkus. — Prayers of Æakus — procure relief for Greece — Phôkus killed by Pêleus and Telamôn. — Telamôn, banished, goes to Salamis. — Pêleus — goes to Phthia — his marriage with Thetis. — Neoptolemus. — Ajax, his son Philæus the eponymous hero of a dême in Attica. — Teukrus banished, settles in Cyprus. — Diffusion of the Æakid genealogy.
ATTIC LEGENDS AND GENEALOGIES.
Erechtheus — autochthonous. — Attic legends — originally from different roots — each dême had its own. — Little noticed by the old epic poets. — Kekrops. — Kranaus — Pandiôn. — Daughters of Pandiôn — Proknê, Phi[p. xxi]lomêla. — Legend of Têreus. — Daughters of Erechtheus — Prokris. — Kreüsa. — Oreithyia, the wife of Boreas. — Prayers of the Athenians to Boreas — his gracious help in their danger. — Erechtheus and Eumolpus. — Voluntary self-sacrifice of the three daughters of Erechtheus. — Kreüsa and Iôn. — Sons of Pandiôn — Ægeus, etc. — Thêseus. — His legendary character refined. — Plutarch — his way of handling the matter of legend. — Legend of the Amazons. — Its antiquity and prevalence. — Glorious achievements of the Amazons. — Their ubiquity. — Universally received as a portion of the Greek past. — Amazons produced as present by the historians of Alexander. — Conflict of faith and reason in the historical critics.
KRETAN LEGENDS. — MINOS AND HIS FAMILY.
Minôs and Rhadamanthus, sons of Zeus. — Europê. — Pasiphaê and the Minôtaur. — Scylla and Nisus. — Death of Androgeos, and anger of Minôs against Athens. — Athenian victims for the Minôtaur. — Self-devotion of Thêseus — he kills the Minôtaur. — Athenian commemorative ceremonies. — Family of Minôs. — Minôs and Dædalus — flight of the latter to Sicily. — Minôs goes to retake him, but is killed. — Semi-Krêtan settlements elsewhere — connected with this voyage of Minôs. — Sufferings of the Krêtans afterwards from the wrath of Minôs. — Portrait of Minôs — how varied. — Affinity between Krête and Asia Minor.
Ship Argô in the Odyssey. — In Hesiod and Eumêlus. — Jasôn and his heroic companions. — Lêmnos. — Adventures at Kyzikus, in Bithynia, etc. — Hêraklês and Hylas. — Phineus. — Dangers of the Symplêgades. — Arrival at Kolchis. — Conditions imposed by Æêtês as the price of the golden fleece. — Perfidy of Æêtês — flight of the Argonauts and Mêdea with the fleece. — Pursuit of Æêtês — the Argonauts saved by Mêdea. — Return of the Argonauts — circuitous and perilous. — Numerous and wide-spread monuments referring to the voyage. — Argonautic legend generally. — Fabulous geography — gradually modified as real geographical knowledge increased. — Transposition of epical localities. — How and when the Argonautic voyage became attached to Kolchis. — Æêtês and Circê. — Return of the Argonauts — different versions. — Continued faith in the voyage — basis of truth determined by Strabo.
LEGENDS OF THEBES.
Abundant legends of Thêbes. — Amphiôn and Zethus, Homeric founders of Kadmus and Bœôtus — both distinct legends. — Thêbes. — How Thêbes was founded by Kadmus. — Five primitive families at Thêbes called Sparti. — The four daughters of Kadmus: 1. Inô; 2. Semelê; 3. Autonoê and her son Actæôn; 4. Agavê and her son Pentheus. — He resists the god Dionysus — his miserable end. — Labdakus, Antiopê, Amphiôn, and Zêthus. — Laius — Œdipus — Legendary celebrity of Œdipus and his family. — The Sphinx. — Eteoklês and Polynikês. — Old epic poems on the sieges of Thêbes.
[p. xxii]SIEGES OF THEBES.
Curse pronounced by the devoted Oedipus upon his sons. — Novelties introduced by Sophoklês. — Death of Oedipus — quarrel of Eteoklês and Polynikês for the sceptre. — Polynikês retires to Argos — aid given to him by Adrastus. — Amphiaräus and Eriphylê. — Seven chiefs of the army against Thêbes. — Defeat of the Thêbans in the field — heroic devotion of Menœkus. — Single combat of Eteoklês and Polynikês, in which both perish. — Repulse and destruction of the Argeian chiefs — all except Adrastus — Amphiaräus is swallowed up in the earth. — Kreôn, king of Thêbes, forbids the burial of Polynikês and the other fallen Argeian chiefs. — Devotion and death of Antigonê. — The Athenians interfere to procure the interment of the fallen chiefs. — Second siege of Thêbes by Adrastus with the Epigoni, or sons of those slain in the first. — Victory of the Epigoni — capture of Thêbes. — Worship of Adrastus at Sikyôn — how abrogated by Kleisthenês. — Alkmæôn — his matricide and punishment. — Fatal necklace of Eriphylê.
LEGEND OF TROY.
Great extent and variety of the tale of Troy. — Dardanus, son of Zeus. — Ilus, founder of Ilium. — Walls of Ilium built by Poseidôn. — Capture of Ilium by Hêraklês. — Priam and his offspring. — Paris — his judgment on the three goddesses. — Carries off Helen from Sparta. — Expedition of the Greeks to recover her. — Heroes from all parts of Greece combined under Agamemnôn. — Achilles and Odysseus. — The Grecian host mistakes Teuthrania for Troy — Telephus. — Detention of the Greeks at Aulis — Agamemnon and Iphigeneia. — First success of the Greeks on landing near Troy. — Brisêis awarded to Achilles. — Palamêdês — his genius, and treacherous death. — Epic chronology — historicized. — Period of the Homeric Iliad. — Hectôr killed by Achilles. — New allies of Troy — Penthesileia. — Memnôn — killed by Achilles. — Death of Achilles. — Funeral games celebrated in honor of him. — Quarrel about his panoply. — Odysseus prevails and Ajax kills himself. — Philoktêtês and Neoptolemus. — Capture of the Palladium. — The wooden horse. — Destruction of Troy. — Distribution of the captives among the victors. — Helen restored to Menelaus — lives in dignity at Sparta — passes to a happy immortality. — Blindness and cure of the poet Stesichorus — alteration of the legend about Helen. — Egyptian tale about Helen — tendency to historicize. — Return of the Greeks from Troy. — Their sufferings — anger of the gods. — Wanderings of the heroes in all directions. — Memorials of them throughout the Grecian world. — Odysseus — his final adventures and death. — Æneas and his descendants. — Different stories about Æneas. — Æneadæ at Skêpsis. — Ubiquity of Æneas. — Antenôr. — Tale of Troy — its magnitude and discrepancies. — Trojan war — essentially legendary — its importance as an item in Grecian national faith. — Basis of history for it — possible, and nothing more. — Historicizing innovations — Dio Chrysostom. — Historical Ilium. — Generally received and visited as the town of Priam. — Respect shown to it by Alexander. — Successors of Alexander — foundation of Alexandreia Trôas. — The Romans — treat Ilium with marked respect. — Mythical legitimacy of Ilium — first called in question by Dêmêtrius of Skêpsis and Hestiæa. — Supposed Old Ilium, or real Troy, distinguished from New Ilium. — Strabo alone believes in Old Ilium as the real Troy — other authors continue in the old faith — the[p. xxiii] moderns follow Strabo. — The mythical faith not shaken by topographical impossibilities. — Historical Trôas and the Teukrians. — Æolic Greeks in the Trôad — the whole territory gradually Æolized. — Old date, and long prevalence of the worship of Apollo Sminthius. — Asiatic customs and religion — blended with Hellenic. — Sibylline prophecies. — Settlements from Milêtus, Mitylênê, and Athens.
GRECIAN MYTHES, AS UNDERSTOOD, FELT, AND INTERPRETED BY THE GREEKS THEMSELVES.
The mythes formed the entire mental stock of the early Greeks. — State of mind out of which they arose. — Tendency to universal personification. — Absence of positive knowledge — supplied by personifying faith. — Multitude and variety of quasi-human personages. — What we read as poetical fancies, were to the Greeks serious realities. — The gods and heroes — their chief agency cast back into the past, and embodied in the mythes. — Marked and manifold types of the Homeric gods. — Stimulus which they afforded to the mythopœic faculty. — Easy faith in popular and plausible stories. — Poets — receive their matter from the divine inspiration of the Muse. — Meaning of the word mythe — original — altered. — Matter of actual history — uninteresting to early Greeks. — Mythical faith and religious point of view — paramount in the Homeric age. — Gradual development of the scientific point of view — its opposition to the religious. — Mythopœic age — anterior to this dissent. — Expansive force of Grecian intellect. — Transition towards positive and present fact. — The poet becomes the organ of present time instead of past. — Iambic, elegiac, and lyric poets. — Influence of the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce, B. C. 660. — Progress — historical, geographical, social — from that period to B. C. 500. — Altered standard of judgment, ethical and intellectual. — Commencement of physical science — Thalês, Xenophanês, Pythagoras. — Impersonal nature conceived as an object of study. — Opposition between scientific method and the religious feeling of the multitude. — How dealt with by different philosophers. — Socratês. — Hippocratês. — Anaxagoras. — Contrasted with Grecian religious belief. — Treatment of Socratês by the Athenians. — Scission between the superior men and the multitude — important in reference to the mythes. — The mythes accommodated to a new tone of feeling and judgment. — The poets and logographers. — Pindar. — Tragic poets. — Æschylus and Sophoklês. — Tendencies of Æschylus in regard to the old legends. — He maintains undiminished the grandeur of the mythical world. — Euripidês — accused of vulgarizing the mythical heroes, and of introducing exaggerated pathos, refinement, and rhetoric. — The logographers — Pherekydês, etc. — Hekatæus — the mythes rationalized. — The historians — Herodotus. — Earnest piety of Herodotus — his mystic reserve. — His views of the mythical world. — His deference for Egypt and Egyptian statements. — His general faith in the mythical heroes and eponyms — yet combined with scepticism as to matters of fact — His remarks upon the miraculous foundation of the oracle at Dôdôna. — His remarks upon Melampus and his prophetic powers. — His remarks upon the Thessalian legend of Tempê. — Allegorical interpretation of the mythes — more and more esteemed and applied. — Divine legends allegorized. — Heroic legends historicized. — Limits to this interpreting process. — Distinction between gods and dæmons — altered and widened by Empedoclês. — Admission of dæmons as partially evil beings — effect of such admission. — Semi-historical inter[p. xxiv]pretation — utmost which it can accomplish. — Some positive certificate indispensable as a constituent of historical proof — mere popular faith insufficient. — Mistake of ascribing to an unrecording age the historical sense of modern times. — Matter of tradition uncertified from the beginning. — Fictitious matter of tradition does not imply fraud or imposture. — Plausible fiction often generated and accredited by the mere force of strong and common sentiment, even in times of instruction. — Allegorical theory of the mythes — traced by some up to an ancient priestly caste. — Real import of the mythes supposed to be preserved in the religious mysteries. — Supposed ancient meaning is really a modern interpretation. — Triple theology of the pagan world. Treatment and use of the mythes according to Plato. — His views as to the necessity and use of fiction. — He deals with the mythes as expressions of feeling and imagination — sustained by religious faith, and not by any positive basis. — Grecian antiquity essentially a religious conception. — Application of chronological calculation divests it of this character. — Mythical genealogies all of one class, and all on a level in respect to evidence. — Grecian and Egyptian genealogies. — Value of each is purely subjective, having especial reference to the faith of the people. — Gods and men undistinguishable in Grecian antiquity. — General recapitulation. — General public of Greece — familiar with their local mythes, careless of recent history. — Religious festivals — their commemorative influence. — Variety and universality of mythical relics. — The mythes in their bearing on Grecian art. — Tendency of works of art to intensify the mythical faith.
THE GRECIAN MYTHICAL VEIN COMPARED WITH THAT OF MODERN EUROPE.
Μῦθος — Sage — an universal manifestation of the human mind. — Analogy of the Germans and Celts with the Greeks. — Differences between them. — Grecian poetry matchless. — Grecian progress self-operated. — German progress brought about by violent influences from without. — Operation of the Roman civilization and of Christianity upon the primitive German mythes. — Alteration in the mythical genealogies — Odin and the other gods degraded into men. — Grecian Paganism — what would have been the case, if it had been supplanted by Christianity in 500 B. C. — Saxo Grammaticus and Snorro Sturleson contrasted with Pherekydês and Hellanikus. — Mythopœic tendencies in modern Europe still subsisting, but forced into a new channel: 1. Saintly ideal; 2. Chivalrous ideal. — Legends of the Saints — their analogy with the Homeric theology. — Chivalrous ideal — Romances of Charlemagne and Arthur. — Accepted as realities of the fore-time. — Teutonic and Scandinavian epic — its analogy with the Grecian. — Heroic character and self-expanding subject common to both. — Points of distinction between the two — epic of the Middle Ages neither stood so completely alone, nor was so closely interwoven with religion, as the Grecian. — History of England — how conceived down to the seventeenth century — began with Brute the Trojan. — Earnest and tenacious faith manifested in the defence of this early history. — Judgment of Milton. — Standard of historical evidence — raised in regard to England — not raised in regard to Greece. — Milton’s way of dealing with the British fabulous history objectionable. — Two ways open of dealing with the Grecian mythes: 1, to omit them; or, 2, to recount them as mythes. — Reasons for preferring the latter. — Triple partition of past time by Varro.