chapter 4

The Chapter of Eights

4.1 Objects, Desires and Pleasures (Kāma Sutta)

If one with a desiring mind
Succeeds in gaining sensual pleasure,
A mortal such is pleased in mind
With wishes all fulfilled. 773

But if from this person passionate
all of these pleasures disappear,
then does this pleasure-addict feel,
as though by arrows pierced. 774

The one who shuns these pleasures of sense,
like treading not on a serpent’s head,
such a one with mindfulness
this tangled world transcends. 775

Obsessed with fields and property,
with money, estates and those employed,
with many pleasures, women and kin,
such a person greedily— 776

Do weaknesses bring down indeed,
by dangers is that person crushed,
and then by dukkhas stuck against—
as water into broken boat. 777

So let a mindful one avoid
at every turn these sense-desires,
with them abandoned, cross the flood,
as boat is baled for the Further Shore. 778
(Snp 773–778)

+ 解説-

The famous word Kāma
First, we can consider its range of meaning, a range which no one word in English can cover. As it is a very important word, used in so many different ways, there are only two choices to make in its translation. We may choose not to translate it, letting the context of its use bring out its sense, but this has the disadvantage that its meaning may not be revealed in full. In this Sutta Nipāta translation I have not chosen this alternative. The second of these is to use appropriate and different English words to render the various meanings of kāma. This also has a disadvantage as the full range of this word is not apparent if one reads only English. This note, then is to bring out these varied meanings of kāma as well as drawing attention to compound words in Pāli of which kāma is part.
Kāma meaning “desire”. This means “desire based on the senses”. A sense-object is seen (heard, etc.), by way of the organ of the eye or ear (no problem so far!), it registers in the mind and is identified with a name (this is the operation of saññā which includes memory as part of perception (still no trouble!). Then desire—kāma—may arise wanting that which has been perceived. This is where we may have difficulties—maybe we get what we want but still are not satisfied (though all sense-objects are impermanent), or we don’t get it and so suffer in another way. Kāma as sense-desire is very much tied up with my idea of my self, so even its fulfilment is a limitation. Desires of this kind, as we learn from so many places in the Pāli Suttas, are compared to a blazing fire. Stoke up the fires of desire and suffer even more!. Our materialistic culture with its unending advertisements stokes these fires and in doing so feeds the fires, so that no peace, satisfaction, or true happiness can be had in the long run.
Of course, as with the English word “desire”—it may be used in good beneficial contexts—so the word kāma also stretches to cover beneficial matters. One may desire the Dharma and in Pāli one would be spoken of as dhammakāmo. One may also desire the benefit of oth- ers, even their Liberation—this desire also falls under the word kāma. People sometimes ask, “But can I say that I desire Nirvāṇa?”. A reply to this might be that at the beginning of Buddhist study and practice one may desire to experience Nirvāṇa but as practice progresses the desire for that fades away as the Path to it and Nirvāṇa meld together.
Sense-desires are very varied, some very refined (as desire for sublimely peaceful states of mind), and some much grosser (as with eating delicious food, or of course for sex). In the latter contexts it is appropriate to use the words “sensual” and “sensuality” as translations of kāma, and when kāma is part of the compound kāmarāga, sex and sexual are definitely indicated. Rāga by itself and combined with kāma indicates “lust”.
Kāma as sense-objects, the world of kāma. So far kāma as a com- ponent of mind has been mentioned, but the word also stretches to include the variegated nature of sense objects. In this translation of Snp 50 in The Rhino’s Horn you will find—
Sense-desires so varied, sweet, in divers forms disturb the mind, Seeing the bane of sense-desires, fare singly as the rhino’s horn.
This translation emphasizes sense-desires as an aspect of kāma. But it can also be translated—
Things of sense so varied, sweet,
in divers forms disturb the mind, When danger’s seen in things of sense, fare singly as the rhino’s horn.
“Things of sense” (vatthukāma) emphasizes the array of objects known by the way of eye, ear, nose, tongue and sense of touch. For a person with no sense-restraint they disturb the mind. English has no one word which will stretch over both the interior sense-desire and the exterior sense-objects. There are many examples of translators using the wrong meaning of the work kāma in their works.
Beyond desires and things of sense there is also kāma as enjoyment, sense-pleasure, sensuality/sexuality. In general, Theravāda Buddhist teachings counsel that one should restrain one’s senses and not indulge in this aspect of kāma. However, the Suttas have been preserved by bhikkhus and emphasize their attitude to sense-restraint. Lay people in traditional Theravāda countries tend to disregard this and enjoy life, unless there are secluding themselves for Dharma-practice as on the Uposatha days (full moon or new moon) or on a longer meditation retreat.
Turning away from kāma, as in a monastic life, is very different from its natural enjoyment. The first is emphasized by the Pāli Kāma Sutta, the second by the Hindu (Sanskrit) Kāma Sūtra. In this book and other Hindu works on kāma, the meaning of this word is not confined, as some think, to sexual enjoyment. In fact they have treatises on civilized and refined enjoyment of all the senses: music fit for the time of day and the persons present, gardens and flower-arrangements, food and different sorts of incense, and so on. None of these things from a Buddhist viewpoint are in any way wrong or evil—they are just beautiful parts of this world—“things of sense so varied, sweet.”
Whether they disturb the mind or not depends on how much Dharma- practice one has done. One who has gone far on the Path according to Theravāda sources seems to be a person no longer interested in sense- objects, having few desires and little or no enjoyment in the different aspects of kāma. This suggests a rather dour character, serious and unsmiling. But the monastic Teachers that I have me usually had an excellent sense of humour, and some of them with their very earthy stories, had their audience roaring with laughter.
A rather different approach to kāma is found in some Tibetan Bud- dhist teachings such as Dzogchen. Here the array of sense-objects are looked upon as the ornaments of the world we live in. These ornaments are to be offered (which implies we let go of them, thus not controlling them but not renounceing them), along with everything else: form (= body), sound, smell, taste, touch, the whole range of dharmas (= mind). The five great nectars, blood, that which arises from the fusion of the last two, the Awakened Heart, the “wheel” of practice—all of- fered infinitely. In this tradition, all aspects of kāma, within the mind as desires outside in the world as sense-objects, and the enjoyments de- pending on them are to be integrated without the usual judgements— of this is good or that is bad. This allows what is repressed in mind to be liberated along with all the Qualities praised in the Dharma. Actions which would bring about the suffering of others through this process of integration are avoided by the samaya or relationship one has with Teachers and fellow-practitioners.

4.2 The Eight on the Body as a Cave (Guhaṭṭhaka Sutta)

The person who’s to their body-cave
Clouded by many moods, and in delusion sunk,
Hard it is for that one, far from detachment,
To abandon sensual pleasures in the world. 779

Bound the worldly pleasures of the past,
And hard to liberate are they in future time,
From others they’re not free, not liberated—
They’re attached to past and the future too. 780

Those who are niggardly, who hank after pleasures,
infatuated they are, all their things—losses all!
But subjected to pain they lament their losses—
For how can all this be taken away, they wail? 781

Therefore should a person train,
Seeing the roughness of the world,
To take not to a wicked way,
For the wise say, life is short! 782

I see here trembling, fearful in the world,
These people gone under the sway of craving for births1—
Base people floundering in the jaws of death,
Not free from craving for repeated birth. 783

1 Sujato:lkmhad“Thatthesepeoplevariouslydesiringdifferentbeing”,whichis barely intelligible.

Look at them trembling with their egotistic selfishness,
Like fish in a stream fast drying-up,
Seeing it so, fare unselfish in this life,
And cease worrying on different states of being. 784

No longer longing towards either extreme
Having understood touch, together with letting go,
One should do what others will praise and not blame,
A wise one is not stained by what is seen and heard. 785

The sage has known perception and crossed the flood,
So with nothing tainted, nothing wrapped around,
They fare on in diligence with the arrow drawn,
Neither longing for this world nor for another. 786
(Snp 779–786)

4.3 The Eight on the Corruptions of the Mind (Duṭṭhaṭṭhaka Sutta)

Some speak with wicked intent,
while others are convinced their words are due,
but whatever talk there is the sage enters no debate,
therefore nowhere barren is the silent sage.2 787

2 Sujato:lkm’srenderingofthelastline,“Andyet...”,ismisleading.ThePalidoes not express disjunction but consequence, tasmā = therefore.

But a person led by his own desires,
and then continuing accordingly finds it hard,
to let them go, accepting his own thoughts as true,
becomes one who speaks as a believer. 788

So if a person without being asked,
having practiced and praised virtues,
even those of himself, invented by himself,
the good say this is an ignoble act indeed. 789

But that bhikkhu who’s serene at heart
and praises neither his own practices or virtue,
not labelling himself “I” in “this”, the good praise him:
“No arrogance has he for anything in the world”. 790

Who’s thoughts, imagined and put together, then prefer
even though their source is not purified,
seeing advantage for himself, he relies upon this,
depending on what is imagined,
constructed and conventional. 791

When one has grasped
from among many Dharma-doctrines,
after due considerations one clings to a View,
or condemns those of others,
hence it’s not easy to transcend those Dharmas. 792

There is not in the world such a purified person
who continues in these views about existential states,
for this person of purity, let go of illusion and conceit,
how can he be in any way reckoned? 793

Who is attached still enters into doctrinal debates,
but one unattached, how could he take sides?
For him nothing is taken up or put down,3
With all views shaken off, relying on none. 794
(Snp 787–794)

3 Sujato:HerethePaliwordattameans“takenup”,andisnotthewell-knownatta meaning “self ”. See Norman’s note on this verse. I have corrected the translation accordingly

4.4 The Eight on Purity (Suddhaṭṭhaka Sutta)

“A pure one I see”, free completely from disease,
so by “seeing” such (it is said) one attains to purity.
Convinced about this and holding it highest
that one relies on this knowledge
while contemplating purity. 795

But if a person by seeings’ purified
or if through such knowledge could leave dukkha aside
then one with assets still by another could be purified:
this view betrays one who speaks in this way. 796

The Brahmin says not that “by another, one is purified”—
not by sights or by sounds, rites and vows and what’s sensed.
Such person’s not stuck upon merit or evil,
with selfishness renounced, constructing nothing here. 797

Former (things4) let go, then to other (things) attached,
following craving, their bondage, they do not overcross,
so they (continue) with grasping and discarding,
as monkey letting go a branch to seize upon another. 798

4 “Things”:teacher,lover,view,objectsetc.

A person undertaking (holy) vows goes high and low—
they waver, fettered by conditional perceptions.
But one who has learnt well and the Dharma penetrated
goes not up and down—
that one of wisdom profound. 799

Within all the dharmas whether seen or they’re heard,
or otherwise sensed, this one fights not at all,
that one who sees them nakedly while faring to the end,
by whom in the world could he be described? 800

They neither form views, show nothing’s preferred,
nor do they claim a purity supreme,
having loosened craving’s knot with which they were bound,
no longer they have longing for what’s in the world. 801

Having Known, having Seen, there’s nothing to be grasped
by a Brahmin gone beyond all limitations,
neither lustful with lusts nor to lustlessness attached—
in this there is nothing that’s grasped as the highest. 802
(Snp 795–802)

4.5 The Eight on the Ultimate Paramaṭṭhaka Sutta

Whoever should take to himself certain views,
thinking them best, supreme in the world,
and hence he proclaims all others as low—
by this he does not become free from disputes. 803

In whatever is seen by him, heard, and cognized,
vows and rites done—he sees profit in these;
and so from his grasping at that very view
all others he sees as worthless, as low. 804

Intelligent people declare it a bond,
if relying on one he sees others as low;
therefore should a bhikkhu rely not on rites,
on vows, on the seen, the heard, and cognized. 805

And so in this world let him fashion no views
relying on knowledge5, rites and vows done,
nor let him conceive that he’s on a par,
nor think himself low, nor higher than them. 806

5 Traditionalknowledge.

Abandoning own views, not grasping (at more)
and even in knowledge not seeking support,
’mong those who dispute he never takes sides,
to the various views he does not recourse. 807

Having no bias for either extreme—
for being, or not, here, the next world,
for a bhikkhu like this there’s no settling down,
’mong dharmas seized and decided (by them). 808

Concerning the seen, the heard and cognized,
not the least notion is fashioned by him,
that one who’s perfected grasps at no view,
by whom in the world could he be described? 809

Neither they’re fashioned nor honoured at all—
those doctrines, they’re never accepted by him:
Perfected, not guided by rites or by vows,
One Thus, not returning, beyond has he gone. 810
(Snp 803–810)

4.6 Ageing and Decay (Jarā Sutta)

Short indeed is this life—
within a hundred years one dies,
and, if any live longer
then they die of decay. 811

People grieve for what is “mine”:
though possessions are not permanent
and subject to destruction—
see this and homeless dwell. 812

In death it’s all abandoned,
yet still some think “it’s mine”;
knowing this, the wise to me devoted
should stoop not making it “owned”. 813

As one who’s waking then sees not
the things that happened in sleep;
so the beloved are not seen—
departed and done their time. 814

People now are seen and heard
and this are called by name,
but alone will the name remain
in speaking of those gone. 815

In “mine-making” greedy, they do not let go
of sorrow, lamenting and avarice,
therefore sages leaving possessions
freely wander, seers of security. 816

For a bhikkhu practicing in solitude,
keeping company with secluded mind,
of such a one are all agreed:
“In being he’ll not be seen again”. 817

In all matters the sage is unsupported,
nothing that makes dear, nor undear,
sorrow and avarice do not stain that one,
As water does not stay upon a leaf. 818

As a water-drop on lotus plant,
as water does not stain a lotus flower,
even so the sage is never stained
by seen, heard, or whatever’s cognized. 819

Certainly the wise do not conceive
upon the seen, the heard, and cognized,
nor wish for purity through another,
for they are not attached nor yet displeased. 820

+ 解説-

Reflections on the Jarā Sutta
811: “Short indeed is this life.” When young the days are long and life has infinite possibilities, we think. Death then is something that happens to others, not to us. As we grow older, life passes by more rapidly, filled with many pleasures, pains and responsi- bilities. But when really old we remark that “I don’t know where that week (or month or year) has gone”. So even with modern medical facilities “within a hundred years one dies”. Some do live longer but the Buddhist emphasis, contrary to the medical view which supports only that the body should be kept alive as long as possible, is that āyu (long-life) should be accompanied and guided by ñāṇa (clarity of mind or wisdom).
(Snp 811–820)
812: “Seeing”impermanenceisveryimportant,notjustoccasionally through the loss of dear people or possessions but deeply and thoroughly in one’s heart through the arising and passing of thoughts whether they are holy ones or those based on greed, ha- tred and delusion—all should be known as impermanent. Whether this experience results in dwelling homeless or not depends upon one’s circumstances. And the homelessness of the bhikkhu or bhikkhunī will not suit everybody. A kind of homelessness may be lived in a household life when there is little or no “mine- making” (mamaṁkāra). This however presupposes that there is no longer the tendency to “I-making” (ahaṁkāra).
813: People often think that their possessions, in which they may include their bodies and some aspects of their minds which they are glad to own, are really theirs in spite of the message of the death of uncountable trillions of human beings in the distant and recent past. “You can’t take it with you when you go” is a piece of valuable folk-wisdom, though many try to exercise control of their wealth from beyond the grave. Buddhist tradition is to give away wealth and possessions before one dies. At least one makes some good karma by such generosity, while “western” traditions generally emphasize making a will, which leaves to executors the task of allotting bequests to friends and relatives of the deceased. This is not the best way of disposing of so called
814: Seeinglifeasadream,notasrealandsubstantial,isaveryhelp-
ful practice. Even when it is regarded as real, solid and so on grasping is possible even through one is grasping at more illu- sions, as is said in the Diamond-cutter Vajracchedika Sutra:
As stars, a fault of vision, as a lamp,
A magic show, as rain-cloud, as a bubble,
as dream, a lightning-strike, as drops of dew, like this should be viewed all that is conditioned.
The illusive is less easily grasped and letting-go becomes eas- ier. “Departed and done their time”: those departed (peta) have literally “done their time” (kālakataṁ), so it is not only those in gaol, but all of us captured by the desires and pleases of saṁsāra
—we are still doing our time.
815: Thiswell-knownverseusedinobituariesandthelikeinBuddhist
countries underlines how frail our self-importance is. As we live now we have so many connections with others, and perhaps our names are well-known, even famous. After death our fame fades away and as generation succeeds generation others’ knowledge of us grows less and less, till even mighty rulers are little more than half-forgotten names. Who now knows what sort of person King Asoka was and how he conducted his court and treated his wives? We know him mostly from his famous Edicts carved upon rocks, while even Buddhist legends about him are less reliable and open to question in many ways. If such a mighty ruler’s fame will fade in only two thousand years or so, what remembrance will there be of our own small doings in a tenth of that time?
816: No one is truly secure because of many and expensive posses- sions. Security comes from letting-go, both of persons and pos- sessions “out there”, and to grasping “one’s own” body and mind.
817: “Inbeinghe’llnotbeseenagain”meansthatasabhikkhupractic- ing Dharma in solitude with a non-roaming mind, one which is secluded from distractions, he (but this applies equally to female practitioners) will not reappear in birth and death free from the Wheel of being or becoming.
818: “Thesageisunsupported”—heorshehasnoneedofsupports, no need to lean on anything, not even persons, on institutions, upon dogmas or sectarian commentaries, not even upon the wise and Enlightened. And why? No props are necessary for those who have reached the Further Shore and no raft either. Such unstained sages are compared to the leaves of tropical plants which shed the rain falling on them immediately and so are not ravelled in sorrow and avarice.
818: Lotusplants,bothleavesandflowers,haveasoapycoveringso
water does not lay upon them at all. This is the basis for many references in the Buddha’s teachings to lotuses and their purity. Hence they are never stained, not by the mud in which they grow nor by any pollution in the rain or atmosphere. All that rolls off and does not adhere to the surface. Sages are like that.
820: “Notconceivingupontheseen,heardandsensed”;sincethisis a common human activity, relying on no senses at all must seem strange. Even stranger is the fact that they do not “conceive”, meaning that they have no conceit. (This play upon related words occurs also in Pāli with the verb maññati and the noun māna). So in the sage there is no measuring of him or herself against either people—there is no “I am superior”, “I am equal” or “I am inferior” for this is what conceit means in the Buddhadharma. The sage knows that purity comes from the heart and so could be neither attached, on the side of greed, nor displeased, on hatred’s side.

4.7 To Tissametteyya on the Disadvantages of Sex (Tissametteyya Sutta)

Attached to sexual intercourse:
Sir, tell its disadvantages,
having heard your Teaching then,
secluded we will train ourselves. 821

Attached to sexual intercourse,
forgetful of the Teaching then,
wrong things that person practices,
and does what is not Noble. 822

Who formerly fared on alone
but now in sex indulges,
“Low” they say’s that common worldly one,
like vehicle swerving off the track. 823

That one who had renown and fame—
that, for sure, diminishes,
having seen this, train yourself,
renouncing sexual intercourse. 824

Overcome by (lustful) thoughts,
that one broods as a beggar does,
and hearing reproach of others, then
such a person is depressed. 825

For yourself creating “arms”
of others reprimanding words,
so with great entanglement
sinks down into untruthfulness. 826

Well-known as “one who’s wise”
when vowing to the single life,
but later then engaged in sex
will be “a fool defiled”. 827

The disadvantage having known,
the sage, at start and afterwards,
should stablish fast the single life,
having no recourse to sex. 828

So train yourself in solitude,
for that’s the life of Noble Ones,
but not conceive oneself as “best”—
them near indeed to Nirvāṇa. 829

The sage who’s rid of sense-desires,
who to them’s indifferent,
who’s crossed the flood, is envied then,
by those enmeshed with pleasures of sense. 830
(Snp 821–830)

+ 解説-

Verse by verse commentary on this Sutta.
821: This Sutta’s “disadvantages” of sex for a Dharma-practitioner makes a rather strange list:
• onebecomesforgetfuloftheteachings;
• othersblameacelibatewholaterturnsorreturnstosex; • lessoffameandreputationsduetothelast;
• fantasiesandbroodingincrease(=moremoha-delusion).
These are dealt with below. My list of disadvantages is rather more practical:
• possibleentanglementswhicharedifficulttogetoutof;
• lessopportunityfor(meditation)practiceinarelationship; • exhaustionfromworkandfamily.
It is much better to emphasize the advantages of the Good Life as a celibate rather than listing supposed or real disadvantages:
• timeandplaceavailableforpracticeifamonk/nun;
• livelihoodcomparativelyeasy;
• celibatepractitionersarehonouredandsupported;
• mindmaybeunburdenedfrommanyworldlyproblems.
The Pāli word used in this verse, methuna, means both sexual intercourse and sexuality generally.
822: Why would a person in a relationship necessarily be “forget- ful of the Sāsana” (teaching)? This is a bit similar to present day Thai ideas of a bhikkhu who is believed to have lost or cast aside his Dharma knowledge at the time of his disrobing, a sort of “lose robes, lose Dharma”. Such a person is said to practice wrongly and does what is not Ariyan. This word presumably means “what is not of the Noble Ones”, and is not a racial refer- ence. Still, these Noble Ones include all who have true insight into the Dharma from Stream-winners to Arahats. In the later list of the ten fetters (saṁyojana) the first two of these, stream winner and once-returner, still have lust and so can have sex, while the Non-returner cannot due to lack of sexual desire, while Arahats are well beyond such worldly matters. This scheme of listing which fetters disappear with each attainment seems very artificial and inadequate. Now in the present verse since sex is labelled as ignoble and no reference made to the (later?) four stages of Noble insight, it seems that any sexual relationship must, by anyone, be looked down upon.
823: ThatDharmacannotincludetheloveofapartnerisemphasized in this verse. “Fared on (the verb carati—see introductory sec- tion) alone” means the celibate life either as a lay person, or as a monk/nun. Judgement by others that one is now “low” having given this up, is still very much alive in Sri Lanka. “Swerving off
the track” might be true for some: a young American bhikkhu who disrobed after some years as a forest monk comes to mind. He plunged into the varied fleshpots of Bangkok. But this would not be the pattern for most people whose progress in the Dharma may need a partner. Rather than denigrating sex, as this Sutta tries to do, it would be an improvement to admit that the path of many great and noble people in this world has been made possible through the support that they receive from their part- ners. After all, love must be an ingredient, a very important one, upon every spiritual path. Certainly there can be love without sex, but the combination of the two is even more powerful. Not all Buddhist traditions involve celibacy, notably of course tantric varieties of the Dharma. Their approach is conceivably saner and lacks the rather shrill tone of this Sutta’s denial of sexuality. This verse is an appeal based on love of status: having reached “renown and fame” as a celibate practitioners, perhaps as a Chao Khun (Thailand), Sayadaw (Bunna), Mahathera Sri Lanka), sud- denly by disrobing one becomes ordinary. The argument seems to be: remain celibate, have no sex, so that “renown and fame” are preserved. What kind of argument is this!
825: Thisisaverseofwarning:thinklustfulthoughtsandasaresult brood upon the conflict of having these within a life of celibacy, leading to guilt and depression. But this practitioner seems not to know much Dharma. There are all the contemplations of the impermanence of the body and its inevitable decay, eventually becoming a fearsome sight with an indescribable stench (see Snp 1.11, the Vijaya Sutta), as well as reflections on non-self and emptiness. All thoughts whether wholesome or unwholesome are empty of any essence, they have no owner, so who is getting depressed or feeling guilty? They arise and pass away due to conditioning and there is no one who can force them to disappear. Obsession with thoughts of sex and guilt for thinking them are signs that one needs to practise more the methods mentioned above. As for others’ reproach, well, some even people always criticize the most virtuous, an even slander them. Remember! The Buddha said that there is no one who cannot be blamed for even he himself was an object of blame (See Dhp 227). If one listened to every slur and took it to heart, one would never practice Dharma.
826: Creating“arms”orweaponsforpunishingoneselfonthebasis of others’ reprimands continues the topic of the last verse. These reprimanding words uttered by other people, instead of letting them go, are used by self-hatred as “weapons” to beat oneself up, to lower one’s self-esteem. In this case, one’s conceit of oneself, the way one conceives of oneself, is “I am inferior” and my infe- riority compared with others is increasing. Others are viewed as
“superior to myself ” or perhaps as “equal to myself ”. Having low self esteem makes it easier to do things which as they multiply drag my self-conceit even lower. “Sinking down into untruth- fulness” means that one’s actions (karmas) of mind, speech and body depart increasingly from the truth of the Dharma. Cure: an effort to make all sorts of good karma beginning with simple things: offerings of food to teachers and to the poor, speaking kind words to those who suffer, being helpful to those who need it, etc. Then pages of chanting Dharma every day, and eventu- ally begin to practice meditation. Do not try to do the difficult meditation practices first.
827: Anotherwarningverseaboutlosingreputation.Sameperson, with robes or other marks of celibacy and one is praised as wise, without them and sexually active and one’s a fool. Like the last verse this one is concerned with the Eight Worldly Dharmas, principally the dark sides of the pairs: loss, disrepute, blame and suffering (dukkha). For these see, the Maṅgala Sutta (Snp 2.4) Commentary. The author of this verse assuming that it is not the Buddha, has not considered that the subject here is “well-known as wise” so he or she will not be at all upset by others derision. A truly wise person has equanimity (upekkhā) so that his or her mind could not be shaken.
828: Thisversecontinuesfromthelastandisanotherappealtoself- pride and cherishing one’s image—not the most Buddhist atti- tude surely!
829: The training of oneself in solitude is good for some people at some times. In Buddhist traditions it has never been compulsory and it is nonsense to assert, as this verse does, that the Noble Ones’ life is solitary or always spent in the woods. Some who are ennobled by the Dharma may chose to spend their lives in the forest, but others may dwell in cities to help those who have difficulties there. The second two lines of the verse are very true indeed: the Noble Ones have no conceit of themselves as the
“best”, but then they have no conceit at all, hence the mention of Nirvāṇa.
830: The last verse is another appeal for celibacy: that one will be
envied “by those enmeshed with pleasures of sense”. That a prac- titioner should stand firm in celibacy for this reasons strikes on as very peculiar.
This odd Sutta could only have originated from the Buddha if one allows that he could have “off ” days. But this would mean that he was only Buddha sometimes, while at others he would have been unenlight- ened! Not a Buddhist consideration! It is better to regard this Sutta as the work of some rather unenlightened monks, defending their own status but despising those Dharma-followers who led a household life. How it got included in the Sutta Nipāta is a problem now insoluble.
We are told by the Pāli Commentary that this Tissa Metteyya and the young Brahmin of the same name who appears at Snp 5.3 are not the same person. The Commentary does relate a story as the background for this Sutta, though its details do not sound very convincing.

4.8 Being Overbold, the Disadvantages of Debate (Pasura Sutta)

They say: “In our Dharma purity’s found”
but deny that it is found in the Dharma of others.
On what they depend they say “it’s the best”,
and so settle down in their individual truths. 831

Those disputants into the assembly rush,
and perceive opposedly “the other” as a fool.
But in disputes, on others they rely—
these so-called experts ever-loving praise. 832

Engrossed in conflict midst the assembly,
fearing defeat, they wish only for praise,
having been refuted, that one’s truly confused,
angry at blame seeks weakness in the other. 833

“Through investigation is your argument
refuted and destroyed”—so they say.
That one grieves and laments—that mere arguer,
“Oh! I am overcome” that person wails. 834

Arisen among monks—those controversies
among them cause both elation and depression.
Refrain therefore, from disputation!
No meaning’s in it save the prize of praise. 835

Praised in the midst of the assembly
for the presentation of arguments,
then that one laughs, or else is haughty.
So they say, “Conceited by winning debate”. 836

Though haughtiness will be ground for a downfall,
still proudly that one speaks, and with arrogance:
this having seen, refrain from disputations—
not by that is there purity, so the skilled say. 837

Just as a strong man, fed
upon royal food, might roar forth,
wishing for a champion rival,
but finds from the first there’s nought to fight. 838

Those holding a view and disputing, say thus:

“This alone is the truth”, so they aver;

then reply to them: “But no one’s here
to retaliate through disputation”. 839

They continue with their practice, offering no opposition
against others, offering no view opposed to view.
But then, Pasūra, what would you obtain?
For them there is nothing to be grasped as the highest. 840

As you’ve come here, in your mind
thinking and speculating on various views,
you have met with a Washed One
But will not be able to make progress with him. 841
(Snp 831–841)

4.9 Māgandiya Learns the Muni’s Life. (Māgandiya Sutta)
As Craving with Longing and Lust had been Seen
no spark of desire existed for sex,
What then about this filled with piss and with shit—
That even with foot I’d not wish to touch! 842

If you don’t wish for a jewel such as this,
a woman desired by many lords of men,
what view do you hold, living by what rite,
by what vows to arise in what kind of life? 843

As nothing is grasped among various Dharmas,
so for me there is not any “This I proclaim”,
having seen but not grasped among many views,
through discernment among them I saw inner peace. 844

Among what’s constructed thoroughly knowing,
Ungrasping, O Sage, do you speak upon these,
“inward peacefulness”—what meaning has that,
how will the wise declare it to be? 845

Neither from views, not from learning or knowledge,
not from rites, or from vows, does purity come I say;
nor from no views, no learning, no knowledge acquired,
no rites and no vows—none of them at all,
Neither by grasping nor giving them up
is their peace unsupported, and no hunger “to be”. 846

If you speak then not of purity by views,
not by learning, not by knowledge, not rites and not vows;
nor from no views, no learning, no knowledge acquired,
by no rites and no vows—none of them at all,
then I think that this is very deluded Dharma,
for some depend on views as the source of purity. 847

Questioning repeatedly dependent on views,
grasped at again, you’ve arrived at delusion,
not having experienced even a tiny perception of peace,
so therefore you see this as very deluded. 848

Who as “equal” considers, “greater” or “less”,
conceiving others thus would dispute because of this;
but who by these three never is swayed,
“equal”, “superior” does not exist. 849

Why would this Brahmin declare “this is the true”,
with whom would he argue that “this is false”,
in whom there is not “equal”, “unequal”,
with whom would he join another in dispute? 850

With home let go, faring on in homelessness,
in villages the Sage having no intimates,
rid of sensual desires, having no preference,
would not with any arguments people engage. 851

Unattached, one wanders forth in the world,
a Nāga, ungrasping, would not dispute those,
just as the water lily, thorny-stemmed species,
sullied is not by water or mud,
even so is the ungreedy Sage proclaiming Peace,
unsullied by desires and pleasures in the world. 852

The Wise One’s not conceited by view or by intelligence,
for that one there is no “making-it-mine”;
and cannot be led by good works or by learning,
cannot be led away by mind-shelters of view. 853

For one detached from perception, there exist no ties,
for one by wisdom freed, no delusions are there,
but those who have grasped perceptions and views,
they wander the world stirring up strife. 854

+ 解説-

Notes on the Māgandiya Sutta
The two opening verses
In the first line of the first verse we are presented with a statement that sex and lust with longing had been seen—but by who? And in what way had they been seen? This Sutta does not identify who has spoken these words. The verse continues with some very scornful words about someone’s body though we are not told whose.
The second verse is obviously spoken by another person who con- cludes with an interesting question, or rather, a series of them. The Pāli still fails to identify either of these persons. Only in the third verse do we discover that the first verse is supposed to be spoken by the Buddha and the second by his supposed questioner, Māgandiya.
These two verses are worthy of closer examination as they present a number of puzzling questions. The first of these concerns the three nouns: craving, longing, and lust which as aspects of mind must al- ways concern those living a celibate life. So are they just that—three troublesome mind-states? The answer to this is that in a few Suttas and Pāli Commentaries these three have become a potent aspect of Māra’s assault upon the potential Buddha while he was seated under the Bodhi tree just before his Awakening. This assault is mentioned in Snp 3.2 where such mind-aspects and sense-desires, fear and hard hearted- ness are personalized into soldiers in Māra’s army. In the same way, craving, longing and lust are transformed into the famous Daughters of Māra. “Famous” because generations of Buddhist artists have de- lighted in portraying their seductive forms and alluring gestures upon walls and in manuscripts, while monks have also enjoyed elaborating upon this story. Of course, in the various accounts of this incident in both Pāli and Sanskrit, the Daughters of Māra are defeated because the Buddha cannot be seduced by them. If we understand this line to refer to the three gorgeous girls, we must capitalize their names, but not do the same for the verb “seen”, which would mean that the Buddha had only seen them—been aware of them as sight-objects—but taken no interest. On the other hand if they are personalized mind-states then they do not merit capitalized names but the verb “Seen” should have a capital letter to indicate that insight or vipassanā regarding lust and so on. It is worth noting that though the Daughters of Māra legend occurs in the classic Pāli Commentaries, it is rarely found in the Suttas. So much for the first line!
According to the Suttas, supported by the Commentaries, sexual desire is eliminated with the attainment of refined aspects of the paths and fruits. The Buddha and his Arahat disciples are depicted in the Vinaya and Sutta as having gone beyond sex and so having no longer to struggle to maintain celibacy, having in fact none of the problems that most people have with sexuality. This systematized view, slowly becom- ing known as “Theravāda”, promoted the growth of celibate Saṅghas of monks and nuns, some of whom emphasized that only those in robes could reach the more refined stages of liberation. Ordinary practition- ers could not become Arahats; and if by some strange collection of causes they did, either they would have to be ordained on that very day, or they would die! Though this seems most unlikely, it is opposed by the presence at AN 6.119–139 of a list of lay practitioners “who have Gone to the End, Seen the Deathless”. Some of them are familiar and others more obscure but in any case these present-day Buddhists who are not ordained should take heart and remember these heroes from so long ago. Their names “Tapussa, Bhallika, Sudatta Anāthapiṇḍika, Citta Macchikāsaṇḍika, Hatthaka Āḷavaka, Mahānāma Sakka, Ugga Vesā- lika, Sūrambaṭṭha, Jīvaka Komārabhacca, Nakulapitā, Tavakaṇṇika, Pūraṇa, Isidatta, Sandhāna, Vijaya, Vijayamāhika, Meṇḍaka, Vāseṭṭha, Ariṭṭha, Sāragga”. There are no women in this list. The survival of these men’s names among Pāli Suttas very full of teachings to and about the monastic Saṅghas with Liberation limited to only ordained people, is a small indication that in the Buddha’s days liberation was available to all.6
The last two lines of this verse contain words of scorn said to be uttered by the Buddha upon being presented with the beautiful Mā- gandiyā, daughter of the brahmin Māgandiya. The Dhammapada Com- mentary provides details of this story which does not appear in any Sutta. The essence of this is as follows: Māgandiyā rejected many offers of marriage for his daughter made by wealthy and powerful princes. However, upon seeing the footprints of the Buddha (note the connec- tion with the Signs of the Superman—DN 30 and the remarks following Snp 1038), was sure that he would be a suitable husband. After meeting the Buddha and offering him his daughter well-adorned the story con- tinues with the popular account of the Buddha’s Awakening in which Māra and his three daughters, Taṇhā (craving), Aratī (longing) and Rāgā (lust)—whose bodies are rumoured to surpass all human beauty try to upset the Bodhisattva’s intention. This encounter is made the excuse for the future Buddha to scorn a mere human girl—Māgandiyā, with these words—
“what then about this filled with piss and shit, that even with food I’d not wish to touch!”
Now, all Buddhists hold that their Teacher was remarkable for his Great Compassion (mahākaruṇā) towards every human being, and the accounts of this life confirm this. The scornful words quoted above are said to have been spoken in the presence of Māgandiyā herself and
6 Sujato:Thislistisoflayariyans,mostlystream-winners,notarahantsassuggested by lkm. See Bhikkhu Bodhi’s note to AN 6.119 in the Numerical Discourses of the Buddha.
hardly sound like compassionate talk! As it turned out in the Dhamma- pada Commentary story these insulting words caused Māgandiyā— not surprisingly—to hate the Buddha and to seek her revenge on him by burning alive many of the ladies of the local king who were his disciples. So Māgandiyā showed herself as a very nasty piece of work who came to a grisly end. But could a Buddha act in such a way as to bring this about?
As there are a number of Māgandiyās in the Suttas and Commen- taries it may be that these have been confused so that fragments of their legends have been patched together by a misogynist monk who has put the above words in the Buddha’s mouth. After this tangle, Mā- gandiya the Brahmin addresses to the Buddha a number of questions quite unrelated to what has gone before.
Miscellaneous notes
842: The first verse of this Sutta is also found in the story-cycle of King Udena in Dhammapada Commentary vol. 1, p.199ff. of the English translation, Buddhist Legends.
843: “inwhatkindoflife”.“Life”translatesbhava,literally“being”, “existence”.
852: “Nāga”,literallyaserpentorserpent-spiritconnectedwithwater. Worshipped to bring rain. Also an elephant, but here means a mighty Teacher.

4.10 “Before Breaking-up”: a Muni’s Qualities (Purābheda Sutta)

Please Gotama, do you speak to me
upon the person perfected:
how’s their insight and their conduct
so that they can be called “Peaceful One”? 855

One who is craving-free
before the body’s breaking-up,
not dependent on the past
in the present is prepared,
(and in future) has nought preferred, 856

gone anger and gone fear as well,
gone boasting, gone remorse,
wise-speaker with no arrogance,
a Sage restrained in speech, 857

no hopes for what’s to come,
no mourning for the past,
not led astray by views,
the singled seer “mid senses” touch 858

one not concealing, not deceitful,
not hankering and neither mean,
not stuck-up, nor contemptuous,7
and not to slander given, 859

7 Sujato: This line had an unintelligible note, and was translated by lkm as “not rough with others, not causing disgust”, but I am pretty sure the actual meaning is as I’ve given here. Since the note indicated uncertainty in how the line should be translated, I think the change is justified.

to pleasures not addicted
and not to pride inclined,
gentle, ready witted, not
credulous and not attached, 860

training not in hope of gain,
nor disturbed by getting none,
by cravings unobstructed,
hankering not for tastes, 861

ever mindful and equanimous,
so, who as “equal” thinks not of themselves,
nor as better nor as worse,
has no of inflation any sense. 862

And for whom there’s no “dependence”,8
not dependent, Dharma having known,
for such exists no craving for
existence, non-existence.9 863

8 Attachmenttoview.
9 Beingandnon-being,thetwoextremeviews.

That one I call the Peaceful,
who no sensual pleasures seeks;
who therefore has no ties,
crossed entanglement. 864

He does not bring up any sons,
and has no fields or lands;
for him there is nothing at all
that is taken up or put down 865

on account of which, the people
with monks and Brahmins might accuse.
That one is undisturbed,
and by such words unmoved, 866

gone greediness and never mean,
not speaking of themselves as “high”
not “equal”, nor “inferior”
so the unfittable does not fit, 867

for whom is nothing owned in the world
and having nothing does not grieve,
who ’mong Dharmas ventures not
is truly called a Peaceful One! 868
(Snp 855–868)

4.11 Arguments and Disputes Kalahavivāda Sutta

Whence so many arguments, disputes
and sorrow, lamentation, selfishness,
arrogance, pride and slander too?
Whence come all these? Please upon them speak. 869

Much love of arguments, disputes,
means sorrow, lamentation, selfishness,
with arrogance, pride and slander too.
Inclined to selfishness, arguments, disputes;
quarrels, slander also come to birth. 870

From what causes in the world there’s dearness, love,
these various greeds that wander in the world,
from these causes, hopes and their ends as well,
these bring about a human being’s future. 871

From desires in the world as causes of the dear,
these various greeds that wander in the world,
from these causes, hopes and their ends as well,
these bring about a human being’s future. 872

From what causes in the world is there desire,
and much deliberation on this—whence it comes?
And anger too, false-speaking, also doubtfulness,
and dharmas such as these by the Samaṇa declared 873

“It’s pleasant, unpleasant”, so in the world they say
and depending on these arises desire,
but having seen forms, their arising and decay,
then a person in this world certainly deliberates. 874

With10 anger, false-speaking, also doubtfulness,
and all such dharmas, this quality exists.
The doubting person
in the knowledge-path should train
for the Samaṇa has declared dharmas
after having Known. 875

10 Pleasant/unpleasant = duality

The pleasant, the unpleasant, originate from what?
In the absence of what do these cease to be?
That which is being,11 non-being as well,
what their origination, do tell me of this? 876

“Touch”,12 the origination of pleasant, unpleasant,
“Touch” being absent these cease to be.
That which is being, non-being as well,
its origin’s thus, I tell you of this. 877

From what causes in the world does touch come to be
And whence does possessiveness also arise?
in the absence of what is “mine” making not?
When what exists not are no “touches” touched? 878

“Touches” depend upon mind, upon form,
possessiveness caused by longing repeated,
when longing’s not found, possessiveness’s gone,
Whenform13isnolonger,no“touches”are“touched”. 879

For one in what state does form cease to be,
how bliss and dukkha come to cease as well,
please do you tell me how these come to cease?
For this we would know—such is my intent. 880

11 Being (bhava) = existence.

12 Phassa = (roughly) “touch”. 13 Nāma-rūpa: name and form.

Neither one of normal perception nor yet abnormal,
neither unperceiving no cessation of perception,
but form ceases for one who (has known) it thus:
Conceptual proliferation has perception as its cause. 881

Whatever we’ve asked of you, to us you’ve explained,
another query we’d ask, please speak upon this,
those reckoned as wise here, do they say that
“purity of soul is just for this (life)”
or do some of them state there’s another beyond? 882

Here some reckoned as wise do certainly say:
“Purity of soul is just for this life”;
but others who claim to be clever aver
that there is an occasion
for what has nothing leftover.14 883

14 Sujato: I added this line, which was omitted by lkm. 

And Knowing that these are dependent on views,
having Known their dependence, the investigative Sage
since Liberated Knows, so no longer disputes,
the wise one goes not from being to being.15 884
(Snp 869–884)

15 Existence to existence.

4.12 Smaller Discourse on Quarrelling (Cūlaviyūha Sutta)

Each attached to their own views,
They dispute, and the experts say,
“Whoever knows this understands the Dhamma,
Whoever rejects it is imprefect.” 885

Arguing like this, they disagree, saying
“My opponent is a fool, and is no expert”
Which of these doctrines is the truth,
Since all of them say they are experts? 886

If by not accepting another’s teaching
One became a fool of debased wisdom
Then, honestly, all are fools of debased wisdom,
Since all are attached to views. 887

But if people are washed by their own views,
With pure wisdom, experts, thoughtful,
Then none of them has debased wisdom,
For their views are perfect. 888

I don’t say, “This is how it is”,
Like the fools who oppose each other.
Each of them makes out that their view is the truth,
So they treat their opponent as a fool. 889

What some say is the truth,
Others say is false.
So they argue, disagreeing;
Why don’t the ascetics teach one truth? 890

Indeed the truth is one, there’s not another,
about this the One who Knows
does not dispute with another,
but the Samaṇas proclaim their varied “truths”
and so they speak not in the same way. 891

Why do they speak such varied truths,
these so-called experts disputatious—
Are there really many and various truths
Or do they just rehearse their logic? 892

Indeed, there are not many and varied truths
differing from perception of the ever-true in the world;
but they work upon their views with logic:
“Truth! Falsehood!” So they speak in dualities. 893

Based on what is seen, heard,
On precepts and vows, or what is cognized,
They look down on others.
Convinced of their own theories,
pleased with themselves,
They say, “My opponent is a fool, no expert.” 894

They consider themselves expert for the same reasons
That they despise their opponent as a fool.
Calling themselves experts, they despise the other,
Yet they speak the very same way. 895

And since perfected in some extreme view,
puffed with pride and maddened by conceit,
he anoints himself as though the master-mind,
likewise thinking his view’s perfected too. 896

If their opponent says they are deficient,
They too are of deficient understanding.
But if they are wise and knowledgeable,
Then there are no fools among the ascetics. 897

“Anyone who teaches a doctrine other than this,
Has fallen short of purity and perfection.”
This is what followers of other paths say,
Passionately defending their very different views. 898

“Here alone is purity,” so they say,
“There is no purity in the teachings of others.”
This is what followers of other paths strongly assert,

Each entrenched in their own different path. 899

Strongly asserting their own path,
What opponent would they take to be a fool?
They would only bring trouble on themselves
By calling an opponent a fool of impure teachings. 900

Convinced of their own theories,
Comparing others to oneself,
They get into more disputes with the world.
But by leaving behind all theories,
They don’t have any problems with the world. 901
(Snp 885–901)

4.13 Greater Discourse on Quarrelling (Mahāviyūha Sutta)

Regarding those people who hold to their views,
Arguing, “Only this is true!”
Should all of them be criticized,
Or are some praiseworthy also? 902

This is a small thing, not enough for peace.
I say there are two outcomes of dispute;
Seeing this one should not dispute,
Recognizing that safety is a place without dispute. 903

Regarding these widely-held opinions,
One who knows does not get involved with any of them.
Why would the uninvolved become involved,
Since they have no preferences
In what is seen or heard? 904

Those who consider ethics to be the highest
Say that purity comes from self-restraint.
They undertake a vow and stick to it,
Thinking that only training in this way is there purity,
Declaring themselves experts,
They go to future rebirths. 905

If he falls away from virtuous conduct and vows,
He is anxious, having failed in his task.
He yearns and longs for purity, as one far from home
Who has lost his travelling companions. 906

But one who abandons all virtue and vows,
and deeds both blameless and blameworthy,
Does not long for either purity or impurity;
he lives detached, fostering peace. 907

Dependent on ascetic practices,
Or on what is seen, heard, or thought,
They say that purity comes from continual transmigration,
They are not free of craving for life after life. 908

One who yearns has longings,
And is anxious regarding their aspirations;
But for one here who has no falling away or reappearing,
Why would they be anxious,
Or for what would they long? 909

The doctrine that some people call the ultimate,
Others say is deficient.
Which of these speaks the truth?
For all of them say they are experts. 910

They say their own doctrine is complete,
While that of others is deficient.
Thus arguing they dispute,
Each taking what they agree upon to be the truth. 911

If by criticizing an opponent
Their doctrine became deficient,
There would be no distinguished doctrines,
Because it is common for people to speak
In defence of their own doctrines,
While making the other’s out to be deficient. 912

Indeed, the honoring of their own teachings
Is nothing other than praise of themselves;
If each doctrine were valid,
Then purity would be just a personal matter. 913

The brahmin is not led by another,
Considering wisely, they do not grasp any teaching;
Therefore they go beyond disputes,
Since they see no other doctrine as best. 914

Thinking, “I know, I see, this is how it is!”
Some fall back on view as purity.
Even if one has seen, what use is that to them?
Overstepping, they say purity
Comes by some other means. 915

A person with vision sees mind and body,
And then knows only that much;
Let them see much or little,
The experts say purity does not come from that. 916

One who speaks dogmatically,
Who’s settled down in view,
Will not be deferent, one not easily trained.
To that attached, his own views “pure”,
“pure path” according to what he’s seen. 917

The paragon with wisdom comes not near
To following views, by partial knowledge bound.
Having known opinions of common people,
He’s equanimous, though others study them. 918

The sage lets go of all ties to the world,
And when disputes come up they do not take sides;
Peaceful amid the agitated, they are equanimous,
They don’t hold on, thinking, “Let them hold on”. 919

Former corruptions are abandoned,
While new ones are not created,
They have no biasses, and are not dogmatic.
The sage is freed from commitment to views,
Not clinging to the world, nor reproaching themselves. 920

They have no enemies in the doctrines,
Whether seen, heard, or thought;
The sage is freed, having put down the burden,
Not planning, not wanting, not wishing. 921
(Snp 902–921)

4.14 The Quick Way (Tuvaṭaka Sutta)

I ask the Kinsman of the Sun, the great seeker,
About seclusion and the state of peace.
Seeing what is a bhikkhu quenched,
Not grasping at anything in the world? 922

One should completely extract
The root of proliferation and reckoning—
The notion, “I am the thinker”.
One should train to dispel whatever craving
There is inside, ever mindful. 923

Whatever principle they have known for themselves,
Whether internally or externally,
They would not be stubborn about that,
For good people say that this is not quenching. 924

You shouldn’t, on that account, think you are better,
Or worse, or even the same;
Though affected by many different things,
You should not keep thinking of yourself. 925

Totally calm within himself,
A bhikkhu would not seek peace from another;
For one who is at peace with themselves,
There is nothing to hold on to, still less to put down. 926

As in the middle of the ocean,
There are no waves, but all is still,
So they would be still, unmoving;
A bhikkhu is not haughty at all. 927

You have taught me, with your eyes open,
Seeing principles for yourself, dispelling dangers;
Venerable sir, tell me the practice,
The rules of conduct and also meditation. 928

Not letting their eyes wander,
Turning their ear from crass conversations,
Not greedy for flavors,
And not thinking of anything in the world as “mine”. 929

When things afflict him,
A bhikkhu would not whinge at all;
He would neither long for rebirth,
Nor tremble at dangers. 930

He would not store up goods that he gets,
Whether food and drink,
Other edibles or cloth,
And he would not be afraid of not getting anything. 931

Practising jhāna, not footloose,
Not remorseful, nor negligent;
That bhikkhu would stay in quiet
Places for meditation and sleep. 932

They would not sleep much,
But be ardent, developing wakefulness;
They would abandon laziness, deceit, jokes, games,
And sex, together with other frivolities. 933

One of my followers would not cast spells, Or interpret dreams,
Nor would they practice astrology, Prognosticate animal sounds,
Practice fertility magic,
Or [earn money] as a healer. 934

A bhikkhu would not be anxious when criticized,
Nor puffed up when praised;
But would get rid of greed together with
Stinginess, anger, and slander.
They would not continue at a trade,
A bhikkhu would not incur blame at all;
They would not linger in a village,
Nor cajole people hoping to get stuff. 936

A bhikkhu would not be boastful,
Nor speak with an ulterior motive;
He would not practice impudence,
Nor say things that were argumentative. 937

He would not be carried away by lies,
Nor deliberately betray anyone;
Nor would he look down on anyone for their
Way of life, intelligence, virtue, or vows. 938

Even if provoked by different sayings,
Of ascetics or of ordinary people,
He would not answer harshly,
For good people make no enemies. 939

Fully understanding this principle,
An inquiring bhikkhu would always train mindfully;
Knowing quenching as peace,
He would not be negligent in Gotama’s teaching. 940

He overcomes, he is not overcome,
Seeing the Dhamma with his own eyes, not by hearsay;
Therefore he would always respectfully train in accord,
Diligent in the teaching of the Buddha. 941
(Snp 922–941)

4.15 “Assuming Forcefulness” and so on (Attadaṇḍa Sutta)

Fear’s born assuming forcefulness16—
see how the people fight!
I’ll tell you how I’m deeply moved,
how I have felt so stirred. 942

16 Taking/grasping weapons.

Seeing how people flounder
as fish in little water
attacking one the other
its fearfulness appeared. 943

Once I wished a place to stay,
but all the world is essenceless,
turmoil in every quarter,
I saw no place secure. 944

Folks’ never-ending enmity
I saw, took no delight,
but then I saw the hard-to-see,
the dart within the heart. 945

Affected by this dart
one runs in all directions
but with the dart pulled out
one neither runs nor sinks. 946

On this, the training’s chanted thus:
Whatever bonds within the world17
they should not be pursued
knowing in depth all sense-desires
for Nirvāṇa train. 947

17 Kāma: pleasure/desire.

Truthful and not arrogant,
deceit none, slander, hate,
rid of greed’s evil, avarice
beyond them all’s the sage. 948

Not sleepy, drowsy, slothful not,
living not with negligence,
taking no stand on arrogance:
that mind inclines to Nibbana. 949

Be not into lying led,
for forms have no affection,
know thoroughly conceit,
violence avoid fare thus. 950

Delight not in the past,
nor be content with newness,
sad not with disappearance,
nor crave for the attractive. 951

Greed I say’s “the great flood”,
its torrent the rush of lust,
lust’s objects an imagining,
the swamp of lust is hard to cross. 952

The sage on firm ground stands,
not swayed from truth, a paragon,
having relinquished All,
“peaceful” that one’s called. 953

The wise indeed, all wisdom won,
on dharma not dependant,
wanders perfected in this world,
and envies none herein. 954

Who sense-desires has crossed beyond,
undone worldly ties
and bondless, cut across the stream,
no longer grieves or broods. 955

Let what’s “before” just wither up, “after” for you be not a thing,
if then “between” you will not grasp,
You will fare at peace. 956

For whom with mind-and-bodily forms
there is no “making-mine” at all,
grieves not when they are not,
and suffers here no loss. 957

For whom there is no “this is mine”
nor no “To others it belongs”,
in whom “myself ” cannot be found,
Grieves not that “I have none”. 958

Asked upon one unshakeable,
I tell of this one’s goodness:
Not harsh, not covetous at all,
Steadfast, impartial everywhere. 959

For one who’s steadfast, Knows,18
That one does not accumulate,
Unattached to making effort,
Sees security everywhere. 960

18 Capital “k” = enlightened.

A sage speaks not as though19
’Mong equal, low or high,
Serene, devoid of avarice,
Does not accept or reject. 961
(Snp 942–961)

19 No conceits or dialects of caste.

4.16 Sāriputta asks the Buddha (Sāriputta Sutta)

Not seen before by me,
nor heard by anyone:
such sweetly-spoken Teacher
from Tusita came to lead a group. 962

One by himself attained to bliss,
all darkness he dispelled,
so that the One-With-Eyes be seen
by world together with the gods. 963

One’s who’s “Thus”, the unattached,
that Buddha undeceptive,
with many disciples, devotees,
for them I ask a question.20 964

20 Although Sāriputta is asking a question “for them”, it seems to be a question for monks.

For a monk avoiding society,
seeking out a lonely place—
bone yards, at the base of trees,
or caves within the mountain wastes— 965

Living-places high or low,
How many are the terrors there,
that a monk in his silent place
trembles not at all? 966

How many are the troubles here
for a monk to overcome,
while living in a place remote,
or going to the Ungone-Point. 967

What ways of speaking would be his?
What place should he frequent?
What sorts of rules, kinds of vows,
For the monk with mind intent? 968

What is the training he adopts,
one-pointed, mindful, wise;
to blow away all blemishes,
as does a smith with silver? 969

As One who Knows I’ll explain to you,
what’s pleasant for you practicing avoidance,21
who live and who rest in a lonely abode,
wishing Awakening in keeping with Dharma. 970

21 It is difficult to find a verb to translate vijiguccha.

Within limits the mindful monk practices,
then of five fears is this wise one not afraid:
March-flies and mosquitoes, of slithering snakes,
of men’s assaults, and fierce four-footed beasts. 971

Nor be disturbed by those with differing Dharma,
even having seen their many perils,
further then, this seeker of the good
will overcome all fearfulness too. 972

Afflicted by sicknesses, hunger as well,
the cold and strong heat he should endure,
by these many touches should he be unmoved,
having energy stirred and striving with strength. 973

Neither should he steal, nor should he tell lies,
but let love suffuse the fearful and the unafraid,
and when his mind is agitated let him know
“This should be removed”—it’s on the Dark One’s side. 974

Into the power of anger and of arrogance
he shouldn’t fall, but firm, eradicate their roots,
all being attached he overcomes complete,
all that is dear to him, all that repels. 975

With wisdom esteemed, with joy purified,
removing supports for all fearfulnesses,
let him conquer dislike for his lone lodging-place,
and conquer the four that cause him to lament: 976

“Alas, what shall I eat” and “where indeed eat it”,
“last night l slept badly” and “where sleep today”—
one-in-training, a wanderer, of no flag the follower
should such thoughts let go, leading to lamentation. 977

Satisfied, receiving timely food and clothes,
knowing moderation in them, and
protected by them, in a village he’s restrained
though roughly he’s addressed, speaks no harsh word. 978

With eyes cast down, feet not longing-guided,
to jhāna devoted, very watchful he should be,
let him grow in equanimity with mind composed,
check his scruples, how he inclines to doubt. 979

With words of reproof let the mindful one rejoice,
and shatter his scorn for his fellow-celibates;
and utter skilful words at the proper time,
and think not upon views and beliefs of common folk. 980

And then in the world, there are the dusty five
in which the mindful one guided,
trains himself well, lust overcoming to bodies and to sounds,
to tastes, to perfumes and touches too. 981

And when in these things he has guided22 desire,
mindful, that bhikkhu of a well-liberated mind,
then he in due time thoroughly examining Dharma,
with mind become one he shall the darkness rend. 982

Thus the Master spoke.
(Snp 962–982)

22 Vineyya: better translation than “dispel”, “disciplined”, “subdued” etc.

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